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List of indigenous peoples

Script errorScript errorScript errorThis is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native peoples. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".[1]

Note that this is a listing of peoples, groups and communities. Many of the names are externally imposed, and are not those the people identify within their cultures. As John Trudell observed, "They change our name and treat us the same." Basic to the unethical treatment of indigenous peoples is an insistence that the original inhabitants of the land are not permitted to name themselves. Many tribal groups have reasserted their traditional self-identifying names in recent times,[2] in a process of geographical renaming where "The place-name changes herald a new era, in which Aboriginal people have increasing control over the right to name and govern their homelands."[3]

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).


Script errorThe continent of Africa, including associated islands such as Madagascar, but excluding Arabia.

Central Africa

Central Africa generally includes the lands mainly of the Congo River basin, south of the Sahara and west of the East African Rift.

East Africa

East Africa, including the African Great Lakes region and the Indian Ocean islands.

Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa includes Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia.

North Africa

North Africa generally includes African countries with borders on the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bounded largely by the Sahara Desert to the south.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa generally includes lands from the Cape of Good Hope northwards to the borders of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, and islands such as Madagascar.

West Africa

West Africa generally includes the region bounded by the Sahara Desert to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south.


the Americas is the continent (or super-continent) comprising North and South America, and associated islands.Script error

The Caribbean

the Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

Central America

North America

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South America

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South America generally includes all of the (sub-)continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.


The continent of Asia including: the Asia Minor, south of the Caucasus Mountains, the West Asia to continental Eastern Mediterranean and the Arabian peninsula, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, North Asia east of the Ural mountains, Eastern Asia, continental South-East Asia and archipelagic regions of the Pacific and Indian oceans bordering the Australian continental shelf.

Western Asia

Western Asia includes the region of Dead Sea Transform, the Arabian peninsula, the Levant, Asia Minor, the Caucasus region and extending to the southern Caspian coast, Kopet Dag mountains and the eastern Dasht-e Lut desert.

Central Asia

Central Asia generally includes the landlocked region east of the Caspian Sea, south of the Russian Taiga, to the Himalayas, and extending eastwards to Mongolia and the western Chinese provinces and autonomous regions.

East Asia

East Asia generally includes the People's Republic of China, the Korean Peninsula, and the associated Pacific islands, principally Japan and Taiwan.

North Asia

North Asia generally includes the Russian Far East and the northern and eastern parts of Siberia.

South Asia/Indian Subcontinent

South Asia generally includes the Indian subcontinental region, adjacent areas, and related islands of the Indian Ocean.

Southeast Asia

Mainland Southeast Asia
Maritime Southeast Asia

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Ethnic groups in EuropeEurope generally refers to the mass of the Eurasian peninsula westwards of the Ural Mountains, the islands of the Mediterranean and North Atlantic Ocean.

Circumpolar North

The Circumpolar North generally includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle.


Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.


Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

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Melanesian generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji.


Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific.


Polynesia generally includes New Zealand and the islands of the central and southern Pacific Ocean

See also

See also

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See all pages that start with indigenous people or indigenous


  1. ^ Script error
  2. ^ Ritzer, G., and Ryan, M.J., eds., The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology, Wiley, 2011, p.313
  3. ^ Alia, V., Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada, Berghahn Books, 2008, p.143
  4. ^ Rouse (1992)
  5. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organization | UNPO, Assyrians the Indigenous People of Iraq [1]
  6. ^ Sawahla & Dloomy (2007, pp. 425–433)
  7. ^ The UN Refugee Agency | UNHCR, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples [2]
  8. ^ Department of Evolutionary Biology at University of Tartu Estonian Biocentre | Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation, Molecular Anthropology Group [3]


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